cancer can spread from where it began to another piece of the body. The first malignancy is known as the essential tumor. The disease in another piece of the body is called metastatic, or auxiliary, malignant growth. Metastatic malignancy has indistinguishable sort of disease cells from the essential malignant growth. For instance, when colon malignant growth spreads to the liver, the disease cells in the liver are colon disease cells. It is metastatic colon malignant growth, not liver disease.
Metastatic cancer is also called:
metastatic tumour, tumours or disease
metastasis (one cancerous tumour)
metastases (more than one cancerous tumour)
When metastatic cancer develops
All tumors can spread. The term metastatic malignant growth is generally just used to depict strong tumors that have spread to another piece of the body. A few tumors, for example, leukemia, lymphoma and different myeloma, are viewed as broad when they are analyzed as are not alluded to as metastatic malignancy.
An individual determined to have malignant growth may never create metastatic disease. Regardless of whether a malignancy spreads relies upon numerous variables including:
the type of cancer
the grade of the primary cancer
the size and location of the primary cancer
how long the primary cancer is in the body
if cancer treatments were used and how well they worked
Metastatic cancer may develop several years after the primary cancer is first diagnosed. Sometimes cancer has already metastasized when it is diagnosed.
How cancer spreads
At the point when disease cells develop and separate, they can move from where they began to different territories of the body. There are 3 different ways disease can spread.
Direct augmentation, or intrusion, implies that the essential tumor develops into tissues or structures around it. For instance, prostate malignancy can develop into the bladder.
Lymphatic framework spread implies that disease cells split far from the essential tumor and travel to another piece of the body through the lymphatic framework. The lymphatic framework is a gathering of tissues and organs that make and store cells that battle contamination and sicknesses.
Circulation system, or hematogenous, spread implies that malignant growth cells split far from the essential tumor, enter the circulatory system and travel to another spot in the body.
The insusceptible framework generally assaults and wrecks malignant growth cells that movement through the lymphatic framework or circulation system. Be that as it may, at times malignant growth cells endure and settle in another territory of the body, where they structure another tumor. To endure and develop in the new area, the tumor must frame its own blood supply (called angiogenesis).
Where cancer spreads
Cancer can spread anywhere in the body. Most cancers tend to spread to one place more often than others. For example, breast cancer and prostate cancer spread to the bones most often. Colorectal cancer tends to spread to the liver. Testicular cancer usually spreads to the lungs, and ovarian cancer usually spreads to the peritoneum.
Doctors may use the following terms to describe if cancer has spread or how far it has spread.
Localized means cancer is only in the area where it started and has not spread to other parts of the body.
Regional means the cancer has grown into surrounding tissues or organs, or it has spread to nearby lymph nodes.
Distant means the cancer is in a part of the body farther from where it started.
Doctors usually use the term metastatic cancer to describe cancer that has spread to distant organs or distant lymph nodes (called distant metastases). The most common sites of distant metastases are the bones, brain, liver and lungs.
How metastatic cancer is treated
Metastatic cancer is usually more difficult to treat than cancer that hasn’t spread. In most cases, the goal of treatment for metastatic cancer is to prolong survival and maintain quality of life. Treatments control and slow the growth of metastases, but the metastases usually don’t go away completely. Treatments are also used to manage or prevent problems caused by the metastatic cancer (called supportive therapies).
Treatments offered for metastatic cancer are based on several factors, including where the cancer started, symptoms, location and amount of metastases, treatments used for the original cancer, the goal of treatment, your overall health and your personal preferences.
Treatments that may be used for metastatic cancer include chemotherapy and other drug therapies, radiation therapy, surgery and ablation therapy. A combination of different treatments and supportive therapies is often used.
Clinical trials are research studies that test new ways to prevent, find, treat or manage cancer or other diseases. Clinical trials for metastatic cancer may be available. If you want to take part in a clinical trial, talk to your doctor or healthcare team to find out if you are eligible.